**Module 3 Case Study**

**Required Reading and Resources**

Cook, A., Netuveli, G., & Sheikh, A. (2004). Chapter 4: Statistical inference. In *Basic skills in statistics: A guide for healthcare professionals* (pp. 40-52). London, GBR: Class Publishing. eISBN: 9781859591291.

Davis, R., & Mukamal, K. (2006). Statistical primer for cardiovascular research: Hypothesis testing. *Circulation, 114*(10), 1078-1082. Retrieved from *http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/114/10/1078.full*

Norman, G. R., & Streiner, D. L. (2014). Section the first: The nature of data and statistics: Chapter 6: Elements of statistical inference. In *Biostatistics: The bare essentials* [4th ed., e-Book]. Shelton, Connecticut: PMPH-USA, Ltd. eISBN-13: 978-1-60795-279-4. Available in the Trident Online Library EBSCO eBook Collection.

**Additional Reading and Resources (Optional)**

McDonald, J. H. (2009). Basic concepts of hypothesis testing. Retrieved from *http://www.biostathandbook.com/hypothesistesting.html*

Johnson, L. (2008). Principles of hypothesis testing for public health. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Retrieved from *https://ippcr.nihtraining.com/handouts/2011/Hypothesis_2011.pdf*

Statistics Learning Centre. (2011, December 5). *Hypothesis tests, p-value – Statistics help*

. Retrieved from *http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0zZYBALbZgg*

Statistics Learning Centre. (2011, October 31). *Understanding the p-value – Statistics help*

. Retrieved from *http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eyknGvncKLw*

Stensson, E. (2012, Apr.) *Basic statistics tutorial 45 hypothesis testing (one-sided), sample and population mean (z)*

. Retrieved from *http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IKxyXs6kRTo*

**Homework Assignment**

### Assignment Overview

Suppose that a 2012 National Health Interview Survey gives the number of adults in the United States which gives the number of adults in the United States (reported in thousands) classified by their age group, and whether or not respondents have ever been tested for HIV. Here are the data:

Age Group | Tested | Never Tested |

18–44 years | 50,080 | 56,405 |

45–64 years | 23,768 | 48,537 |

65–74 years | 2,694 | 15,162 |

75 years and older | 1,247 | 14,663 |

Total | 77,789 | 134,767 |

Discuss probability. What is its history? What is the theory of probability? How is it calculated? What are the advantages and disadvantages of using this technique?

1. Identify and discuss the two major categories of probability interpretations, whose adherents possess conflicting views about the fundamental nature of probability.

2. Based on this survey, what is the probability that a randomly selected American adult has never been tested? Show your work. Hint: using the data in the two total rows, this would be calculated as p (NT) /( p (NT) + p (T)), where p is probability.

3. What proportion of 18- to 44-year-old Americans have never been tested for HIV? Hint: using the values in the 18–44 cells, this would be calculated as p (NT) / ( p (NT) + p (T)), where p is probability. Show your work.

Submit your (2-3 pages) paper by the end of this module.